Mal J Nutr 22(1): 163 - 172, 2016

Disodium Ethylenediarninetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) as an Enhancer of Iron and Zinc Bioaccessibility from Select Cereals and Pulses
Shweatha HE & Kalpana Platel

Department of Biochemistry, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In view of the widespread deficiencies of trace minerals like iron and zinc, strategies to enhance their bioavailability from plant foods is of interest. This study was therefore undertaken to explore ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a known metal chelator, for a possible beneficial influence on the bioaccessibility of iron and zinc from food grains. Methods: EDTA was added at molar ratios ranging from 1:0.25 to 1:2 relative to the inherent iron and zinc to raw and heat-processed food grains. Bioaccessibility of iron and zinc was determined by an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion procedure. Results: EDTA significantly enhanced iron bioaccessibility from all the food grains (from one-fold to thirteen-fold increase), in both raw and heat processed grains. The beneficial influence of EDTA on iron bioaccessibility was more prominent in cereals than in pulses. EDTA showed influence on zinc bioaccessibility to a lesser magnitude (from one-fold to five-fold increase). The impairment on zinc bioaccessibility by heat processing from the food grains was efficiently countered by EDTA. EDTA added at a level equimolar (1:1) to the inherent iron and zinc significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of the iron and zinc among the food grains. Conclusion: EDTA could be an effective co-fortificant to enhance the bioaccessibility of iron and zinc from food grains, possibly in the form of a sprinkle, to combat mineral deficiencies.

Bioaccessibility, cereals, EDTA, iron, zinc

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