Mal J Nutr 22(1): 125 - 136, 2016

Effect of Punicalagin on Human Colon Cancer Caco-2 Cells
Ulfat Omar1,2, Akram Aloqbi1,3Marwa Yousrl1 & Nazlin K Howell1

1 University of Surrey, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Division of Nutrition and Metabolism, Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom
2 King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Science, Biochemistry Department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 3 University of Jeddah, Faculty of Sciences and Arts - Alkamel, Biology Department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is increasing evidence of the presence of antioxidant and antimutagenic properties in some fruit species. Punicalagin extracted from pomegranate is reported to have anti-proliferative activities and able to induce toxicity in colon cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In this study, in vitro apoptotic and anti-proliferative activities of punicalagin were investigated in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells. Methods: Cell viability was identified and a morphological change by punicalagin was taken. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS), annexin V and cell cycle were evaluated by flow cytometer at the tested concentrations of 50 and 75 pM. Moreover, the effects of punicalagin in Caco-2 cells and normal colon epithelial cell line (HCEC) were compared. The Caspases family was investigated as a marker of apoptosis by western blot. Results: Punicalagin (50 and 75 pM) showed toxic effects on Caco-2 cells but not on HCEC with both results being confirmed by morphological studies. In the presence of punicalagin, cytoplasmic ROS production decreased indicating antioxidant activity, whereas superoxide radicals released from mitochondria increased due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Annexin V and caspase family (9, 8 and 3) activation confirmed that cell death occurred via the apoptosis pathway in both concentrations of punicalagin. The cell cycle was arrested in the gap 1 (G1)/synthesis (S) transition phase at the concentrations of punicalagin tested. Conclusion: The in vitro results indicate that further studies are warranted to elucidate the potential role of punicalgin as an anti-cancer agent.

Community, food security, household, nutrition, rural

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